Month: May 2021

Kreb’s cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) : High Yield Notes with Mnemonics

Mnemonic for Enzymes and Steps in Kreb’s Cycle: Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice OxaloacetateCitrate synthase Citrate (may leave the mitochondria to enter CITRATE SHUTTLE for fatty acid synthesis)Aconitase (Aconitic acid is a dehydrated citric acid) IsocitrateIsocitrate dehydrogenase (dehydrogenated H+ added to NAD to form NADH & CO2) Major control enzyme (inhibited by …

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Mendelian Inheritance and Inheritance Patterns : High Yield Notes with Mnemonics

Some important terms related to inheritance and genetics Gene:  a functional part of the DNA molecule of a chromosome which directs the synthesis of a specific polypeptide chain. Allele (allelomorph): alternative form of a gene found at the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes. Homozygous: the presence of two identical alleles at a particular locus on …

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Glycogen Storage Diseases: High Yield Notes and Mnemonics

7 types of Glycogen Storage Diseases Mnemonic:VP CAM HT. This is a pretty lame mnemonic for the order of the disease but this is what I’ve used for years now. If this doesn’t work for you, try this – Very Poor Carbohydrate Affects Muscle and Hepatic Target. Type I – Von Gierke’s disease Type II – Pompe’s disease …

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Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids : High Yield Notes and Mnemonics

Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids is an important topic for USMLE, NEET, PLAB and medical school exams.Let us learn this important topic in this high yield article. Fatty Acid Activation (Cytoplasm) Before undergoing oxidation, fatty acid must be activated first by conversion into Acyl-CoA by the action of Fatty Acyl-CoA synthase (thiokinase). ATP is converted to AMP (not ADP) …

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Competitive, Non-competitive and Uncompetitive Inhibitors : High Yield Notes

Competitive, Non-competitive and Uncompetitive Inhibitors is an important topic for USMLE, NEET, PLAB and medical school exams.Let us learn this important topic in this high yield article. Vmax is the maximum velocity, or how fast the enzyme can go at full ‘‘speed.’’ Vmax is reached when all of the enzyme is in the enzyme–substrate complex. …

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Tyrosinemia Enzymes : Mnemonics

Tyrosinemia is an important topic for USMLE, NEET and medical school exams.Let’s learn tyrosinemia mnemonics in this high-yield article.  Tyrosinemia type I (Tyrosinosis/Hepatorenal tyrosinemia): Enzyme defect: FAH (Fumaryl-acetoacetate hydroxylase) Last enzyme in the cycle Cabbage like odor Hepatocellular carcinoma Renal tubular acidosis Peripheral neuropathy 2. Tyrosinemia type II (Oculo-cutaneous/Richner-Hanhart): Enzyme defect: TAT (Tyrosine Amido-Transferase) 1st enzyme in the cycle …

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Mnemonics for Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) causes

Remember the causes of post-partum hemorrhage using the mnemonic 4Ts 4 ‘T’s Tissue (retained placenta) Tone (uterine atony) Trauma (traumatic delivery, episiotomy) Thrombin (coagulation disorders, DIC) Hope that mnemonic helped. Got a better mnemonic for the same? Let us know in the comments below.Also check out these medical mnemonics Mnemonics for Adverse side effects of …

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Mnemonics to remember Inguinal Canal Walls

Remember the inguinal canal walls using the menmonic MALT*2 MALT × 2 Roof → 2M; 2 Muscles (internal oblique, transversus abdominis) Ant. wall → 2A; 2 Aponeuroses (external and internal oblique) Floor → 2L; 2 Ligaments (inguinal and lacunar) Post. wall → 2T; Transversalis fascia, conjoint Tendon Hope that mnemonic helped. Got a better mnemonic …

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Mnemonics for Viral Hepatitis Clinical Features

Remember the clinical features of Viral Hepatitis using these mnemonics. A and E types are fecal-oral, on the ends like the mouth/anus of the GI tract HAV → Asymptomatic (usually, but can cause jaundice in some cases), Acute, Alone (no carriers) HBV → Blood borne; the cousin of HCV, as both predispose to chronic active …

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Mnemonics- Depressed ST-segment causes

DR MUSLIM Dilated cardiomyopathy Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI) Myocardial ischemia, MVP Unstable angina Shock, Subendocardial infarct LV Enlargement with strain, Low potassium(hypokalemia), Lung embolism Intracranial haemorrhage Medication; digitalis, quinidine toxicity Another mnemonic to help remember the causes of ST depression in ECG is ST DEPRESSED. Hope that mnemonic helped. Got a better mnemonic …

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