medicomaestro

Weiss Ring

A Weiss ring is a type of ‘floater‘. These are pieces of debris that float around in the vitreous humor of the eye, which is the gel-like substance that sits inside the eyeball – between the lens and the retina. Floaters are often caused by shrinkage of the vitreous humor, causing tiny specks of collagen-like …

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Vossius Ring

A Vossius ring is a well-circumscribed complete or incomplete ring of pigment deposited on the anterior lens capsule surface, usually as a result of significant blunt eye trauma. e. It has the same diameter as the contracted pupil, and is due to impression of the iris on the lens as a result of the force …

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Direct and Indirect Ophthalmoscopy

direct ophthalmoscopy versus indirect ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmoscopy or Fundoscopy is the visualisation of the retina or fundus. Direct Ophthalmoscope A direct ophthalmoscope is a device that produces an unreversed or upright image of around 15 times magnification. The direct ophthalmoscope is a critical tool used to inspect the back portion of the interior eyeball, which is called the fundus. Examination is usually best …

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Kreb’s cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) : High Yield Notes with Mnemonics

Mnemonic for Enzymes and Steps in Kreb’s Cycle: Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice OxaloacetateCitrate synthase Citrate (may leave the mitochondria to enter CITRATE SHUTTLE for fatty acid synthesis)Aconitase (Aconitic acid is a dehydrated citric acid) IsocitrateIsocitrate dehydrogenase (dehydrogenated H+ added to NAD to form NADH & CO2) Major control enzyme (inhibited by …

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Mendelian Inheritance and Inheritance Patterns : High Yield Notes with Mnemonics

Some important terms related to inheritance and genetics Gene:  a functional part of the DNA molecule of a chromosome which directs the synthesis of a specific polypeptide chain. Allele (allelomorph): alternative form of a gene found at the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes. Homozygous: the presence of two identical alleles at a particular locus on …

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Glycogen Storage Diseases: High Yield Notes and Mnemonics

7 types of Glycogen Storage Diseases Mnemonic:VP CAM HT. This is a pretty lame mnemonic for the order of the disease but this is what I’ve used for years now. If this doesn’t work for you, try this – Very Poor Carbohydrate Affects Muscle and Hepatic Target. Type I – Von Gierke’s disease Type II – Pompe’s disease …

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Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids : High Yield Notes and Mnemonics

Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids is an important topic for USMLE, NEET, PLAB and medical school exams.Let us learn this important topic in this high yield article. Fatty Acid Activation (Cytoplasm) Before undergoing oxidation, fatty acid must be activated first by conversion into Acyl-CoA by the action of Fatty Acyl-CoA synthase (thiokinase). ATP is converted to AMP (not ADP) …

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Competitive, Non-competitive and Uncompetitive Inhibitors : High Yield Notes

Competitive, Non-competitive and Uncompetitive Inhibitors is an important topic for USMLE, NEET, PLAB and medical school exams.Let us learn this important topic in this high yield article. Vmax is the maximum velocity, or how fast the enzyme can go at full ‘‘speed.’’ Vmax is reached when all of the enzyme is in the enzyme–substrate complex. …

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Tyrosinemia Enzymes : Mnemonics

Tyrosinemia is an important topic for USMLE, NEET and medical school exams.Let’s learn tyrosinemia mnemonics in this high-yield article.  Tyrosinemia type I (Tyrosinosis/Hepatorenal tyrosinemia): Enzyme defect: FAH (Fumaryl-acetoacetate hydroxylase) Last enzyme in the cycle Cabbage like odor Hepatocellular carcinoma Renal tubular acidosis Peripheral neuropathy 2. Tyrosinemia type II (Oculo-cutaneous/Richner-Hanhart): Enzyme defect: TAT (Tyrosine Amido-Transferase) 1st enzyme in the cycle …

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Mnemonics- Causes of Absolute polycythemia

Remember the causes of Absolute Polycythemia using the mnemonic HAJI or ABDULRASHID. HAJI Hypoxia/cardiopulmonary-associated Autonomous EPO production + Associated with renal disorder + Athletic performance enhancing agents JAK2 mutation ;polycythemia vera Inherited (germline mutations) Alternatively, Full Causes By Details ABDULRASHID Apnea Blood Doping Uterine myomata Low partial pressure of oxygen in inspired air Right-to-left cardiac …

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