Notes

Polycythemia vera – High Yield Notes

Polycythemia vera is defined as a condition in which the hematocrit exceeds 50%. There are two causes: relative, in which plasma volume has decreased but red cell mass is preserved; or absolute, in which red cell mass is increased regardless of plasma volume. Absolute #polycythemia may be reactive, as in heavy smokers, or may indicate …

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Three C’s of Measles : Triad of Measles

The triad of Measles includes the 3C’s – cough, coryza, conjunctivitis. MORE ARTICLES Mnemonic for Cullen’s Sign & Grey-Turner’s Sign in Pancreatitis Continue reading Mnemonic for Peptic Ulcer Disease association with food intake Continue reading Mnemonic for diseases identified using GUTHRIE card Continue reading Mnemonic to remember function of PGI2 and TxA2 in Coagulation Continue …

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Congestive Heart Failure Triad

Heart failure (HF), also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) and congestive cardiac failure (CCF) presents with the classic triad of Tachycardia, Dyspnea, and edema. The ECG traid of congestive heart failure is as below : MORE ARTICLES Mnemonic for Cullen’s Sign & Grey-Turner’s Sign in Pancreatitis Continue reading Mnemonic for Peptic Ulcer Disease association …

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Fanconi syndrome triad

The classic triad of the skeletal lesions of hypophosphatemia (rickets or osteomalacia), renal aminoaciduria, and renal glycosuria is known as Fanconi syndrome. MORE ARTICLES Mnemonic for Cullen’s Sign & Grey-Turner’s Sign in Pancreatitis Continue reading Mnemonic for Peptic Ulcer Disease association with food intake Continue reading Mnemonic for diseases identified using GUTHRIE card Continue reading …

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Budd–Chiari syndrome Triad

Budd–Chiari syndrome is a rare condition caused by occlusion of the hepatic veins that drain the liver. It presents with the classical triad of abdominal pain, ascites, and liver enlargement. The syndrome can be fulminant, acute, chronic, or asymptomatic. MORE ARTICLES Mnemonic for Cullen’s Sign & Grey-Turner’s Sign in Pancreatitis Continue reading Mnemonic for Peptic Ulcer Disease …

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Direct and Indirect Ophthalmoscopy

direct ophthalmoscopy versus indirect ophthalmoscopy

Ophthalmoscopy or Fundoscopy is the visualisation of the retina or fundus. Direct Ophthalmoscope A direct ophthalmoscope is a device that produces an unreversed or upright image of around 15 times magnification. The direct ophthalmoscope is a critical tool used to inspect the back portion of the interior eyeball, which is called the fundus. Examination is usually best …

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Kreb’s cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) : High Yield Notes with Mnemonics

Mnemonic for Enzymes and Steps in Kreb’s Cycle: Our City Is Kept Safe And Sound From Malice OxaloacetateCitrate synthase Citrate (may leave the mitochondria to enter CITRATE SHUTTLE for fatty acid synthesis)Aconitase (Aconitic acid is a dehydrated citric acid) IsocitrateIsocitrate dehydrogenase (dehydrogenated H+ added to NAD to form NADH & CO2) Major control enzyme (inhibited by …

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Mendelian Inheritance and Inheritance Patterns : High Yield Notes with Mnemonics

Some important terms related to inheritance and genetics Gene:  a functional part of the DNA molecule of a chromosome which directs the synthesis of a specific polypeptide chain. Allele (allelomorph): alternative form of a gene found at the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes. Homozygous: the presence of two identical alleles at a particular locus on …

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Glycogen Storage Diseases: High Yield Notes and Mnemonics

7 types of Glycogen Storage Diseases Mnemonic:VP CAM HT. This is a pretty lame mnemonic for the order of the disease but this is what I’ve used for years now. If this doesn’t work for you, try this – Very Poor Carbohydrate Affects Muscle and Hepatic Target. Type I – Von Gierke’s disease Type II – Pompe’s disease …

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Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids : High Yield Notes and Mnemonics

Beta-oxidation of Fatty Acids is an important topic for USMLE, NEET, PLAB and medical school exams.Let us learn this important topic in this high yield article. Fatty Acid Activation (Cytoplasm) Before undergoing oxidation, fatty acid must be activated first by conversion into Acyl-CoA by the action of Fatty Acyl-CoA synthase (thiokinase). ATP is converted to AMP (not ADP) …

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