Orthopaedics

Metatarsal Shapes and their Articulations

The following table summarizes the shapes of the proximal surfaces of the bases of the metatarsals and their articulations. These are sometimes asked in medical school exams and in USMLE, PLAB, NEXT-PG. Metatarsal Shape of the articularsurface Articulation 1st Kidney-shaped Medial cuneiform 2nd Triangular Intermediate cuneiform 3rd Triangular Lateral cuneiform 4th Quadrangular Cuboid 5th Triangular …

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Difference Between Male and Female Hip Bones

The following table summarises the Differences between male and female hip bones Features Female Male Greater sciatic notch Wider (75°) Narrower (< 50°) Ischial spine Not inverted Inverted Ischiopubic ramus Thin and not everted Thick and everted Obturator foramen Triangular Oval Acetabular diameter Less than 5 cm More than 5 cm Distance between the pubic …

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Summary of Thenar and Hypothenar Muscles of Hand

The following table summarises the Origin, insertion, and actions of the thenar and hypothenar muscles of Hand. Muscles Origin Insertion Action Thenar muscles Abductor pollicis brevis • Tubercle of scaphoid• Crest of trapezium• Flexor retinaculum Lateral side of base of the proximalphalanx of thumb Abduction of thumb Flexor pollicis brevis • Superficial head from thedistal …

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Structures passing through Extensor Retinaculum

The Extensor Zone VII (wrist) contains 6 extensor compartments comprising of 6 synovial sheath lined tunnels separated from each other by fibrous sheath. These compartments contain tendons of muscles that pass from forearm to hand. The number of tendons passing through the compartments (radial to ulnar) can be remembered using the mnemonic: 2-2-1-2-1-1. Compartment 1: APL (Abductor …

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Mnemonic for Crystals in Gout and Pseudogout

Remember the properties of crystals in gout and pseudogout using the following mnemonic. Gout vs. pseudo gout: crystal lab findings Pseduogout crystals are Positive birefringent and Polygon shaped. Gout therefore is the negative needle shaped crystals. Also, gout classically strikes great Toe, and its hallmark is Tophi. Hope that mnemonic helped. Got a better mnemonic …

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Mnemonic to remember the causes of Multiple Benign Lucent Bone Lesions

Some of the causes of multiple benign lucent bone lesions can be recalled with the following two super-helpful mnemonics: Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City CHEF JOHN P Mnemonics Never Pee On Huge Heavy Elephants From Jersey City N: neurofibromatosis (type 1) P: Paget disease O: Ollier disease H: hereditary multiple exostoses H: hyperparathyroidism (and hemophilia)  E: eosinophilic granuloma F: fibrous dysplasia J: Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome …

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Mnemonic for Tumors that Metastasize to Bone

Tumors that metastasize to bone may be remembered using the mnemonic “lead kettle” spelled PBKTL (“Pb” from the Latin plumbum which is the periodic table name for Lead). PB-KTL Mnemonic P: prostate B: breast K: kidney T: thyroid L: lung For females, breast and lung are the most common primary sites; nearly 80% of cancers that spread to the skeleton are from these locations. …

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Mnemonic to remember Galeazzi and Monteggia fracture-dislocations

There are several mnemonics to remember the difference between  Galeazzi and a Monteggia fracture-dislocation. These two are often confused by medical students and therefore, frequently asked in competitive exams like USMLE PLAB and NEET. Here, in this article, I have enlisted some of these mnemonics that can be used to remember Galeazzi and Monteggia fractures. GRIMUS MUGR (pronounced as mugger) FROG …

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Mnemonic for Differential Diagnosis of Lucent and Lytic bone lesions

We have two super useful mnemonics for the differential diagnosis of lucent/lytic bone lesions : FEGNOMASHIC FOG MACHINES They are anagrams of each other and therefore include the same components. They are by no means exhaustive, but are good enough to help you remember a differential for a lucent/lytic bone lesion and will suffice for >95% of the time 1. Mnemonics FEGNOMASHIC …

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Mnemonic for Differential Diagnosis for Back Pain

Remember the differential diagnosis for Back Pain using the mnemonic DISK MASS. DISK MASS Degeneration {DJD, Osteoporosis, Spondylosis} Infection {UTI, PID, Potts, Osteo, Prostatitis} +Injury/Fracture, compression fracture Spondylitis, Ankylosing +Spondyloarthropathies {Rheumatoid, Reiters, SLE} Kidney stones/infarction/infection {Pyelonephritis /abscess} Multiple Myeloma, +Metastasis from breast, prostate, lung, thyroid, kidney CA Aneurysm – Abdominal Slipped Disk, Spondylolisthesis, Spinal Stenosis …

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