Carcinogens are commonly asked in medical exams (be it USMLE, PLAB, NEET). Direct one-liners are asked about which carcinogen causes which cancer, and the mechanism of the carcinogenicity. More commonly though, exposure to carcinogen(s) is mentioned as a clinical clue in Clinical Vignettes, where the clue often clinches the diagnosis. Go through the following HIGH …


VINDICATE – Medical Mnemonic for Differential Diagnoses and Etiologic causes

vindicate mnemonic

Differential diagnosis is the systematic method by which diseases of  similar presentation are distinguished by considering their common and dissimilar features. In other words, Differential diagnosis is the process of differentiating between two or more conditions which share similar signs or symptoms. On the other hand, every set of signs and symptoms can have several …

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Kayser-Fleischer Ring

kayser fleischer ring

Introduction Kayser-Fleischer ring (K-F ring), also referred to as Fleischer-Kayser ring or Fleischer-Strumpell ring is the most common ophthalmologic manifestation of Wilson disease. KR ring is seen as a golden-brown or green-yellow, bronze or reddish-brown ring in the periphery of the cornea. It occurs due to deposition of copper granules in the cornea. The excess circulating …

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