Pathology

Starry-Sky pattern in Burkitt’s Lymphoma

High Yield One Liner : Starry-Sky pattern is seen in Burkitt’s lymphoma. Explanation The tumor cells of B lymphoblast’s which are large rounded or indented nucleus and 3 or 4 nucleoli with thin layer of basophilic cytoplasm are closely apposed to each other forming a dark blue background (the ‘sky’). The surrounding macrophages with abundant …

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Mnemonics for Clinical Features of Sarcoidosis

Remember the CLinical Features of Sarcoidosis using the following mnemonic – CORONA VIRUS Calcium increase in serum and urine, CD4 helper cells Osteopathy Reticular opacities in lung radiography, Restrictive cardiomyopathy Ocular lesions(e.g. uveitis) Neurologic manifestation, Noncaseating granulomas Nodules(subcutaneous), Nodosum(erythema) Asteroid bodies, ACE increase, Anergy, Adenopathy Vit D increase Interstitial lung fibrosis, Ig increase Respiratory complications, …

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Mnemonics- What’s the difference

Core Concept :Owl’s Eye Appearance in Reed-Sternberg cell of Hodgkin’s lymphoma vs CMV infection Watch out when evaluating lymph nodes. There are cases of CMV lymphadenitis that can mimic Hodgkin disease. Sometimes, patients with Hodgkin disease in remission may contract CMV infection due to their immunosuppressed state. Or, patients with Hodgkin disease may harbor CMV …

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Mnemonics – Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes type 1 and 2

Remember AUTOIMMUNE POLYENDOCRINE SYNDROMES using the mnemonics Type 1 AUTOIMMUNE POLYENDOCRINE SYNDROME or Blizzard’s Syndrome Add PC Addison’s disease HypoParathyroidism Chronic mucocutaneous Candidiasis Type 2 AUTOIMMUNE POLYENDOCRINE SYNDROME or Schmidt’s syndrome Add IT Addison’s disease Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus Thyroid disease Hope that mnemonic helped. Got a better mnemonic for the same? Let us know …

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CARCINOGENS

carcinogen

Carcinogens are commonly asked in medical exams (be it USMLE, PLAB, NEET). Direct one-liners are asked about which carcinogen causes which cancer, and the mechanism of the carcinogenicity. More commonly though, exposure to carcinogen(s) is mentioned as a clinical clue in Clinical Vignettes, where the clue often clinches the diagnosis. Go through the following HIGH …

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VINDICATE – Medical Mnemonic for Differential Diagnoses and Etiologic causes

vindicate mnemonic

Differential diagnosis is the systematic method by which diseases of  similar presentation are distinguished by considering their common and dissimilar features. In other words, Differential diagnosis is the process of differentiating between two or more conditions which share similar signs or symptoms. On the other hand, every set of signs and symptoms can have several …

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Kayser-Fleischer Ring

kayser fleischer ring

Introduction Kayser-Fleischer ring (K-F ring), also referred to as Fleischer-Kayser ring or Fleischer-Strumpell ring is the most common ophthalmologic manifestation of Wilson disease. KR ring is seen as a golden-brown or green-yellow, bronze or reddish-brown ring in the periphery of the cornea. It occurs due to deposition of copper granules in the cornea. The excess circulating …

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