USMLE

Notes, Mnemonics and Quizzes for USMLE preparation

SEROTONIN SYNDROME MNEMONICS

Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that is precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs and overactivation of both the peripheral and central postsynaptic 5HT-1A and, most notably, 5HT-2A receptors. Serotonin syndrome consists of a combination of mental status changes, neuromuscular hyperactivity, and autonomic hyperactivity. Serotonin syndrome can occur via the therapeutic use of serotonergic …

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INSULIN ANALOGUES MNEMONICS

Remember the classification of Insulin analogues using this visual mnemonic. FAST-ACTING1 – Lispro2 – Aspart3 – Glulisine (APIDRA—> anagram of RAPID Acting) SHORT-ACTING4 – Regular insulin LONG-ACTING 5 – Detemir (Lemevir)6 – Glargine ULTRA-LONG-ACTING7 – Degludec INTERMEDIATE-ACTING8 – Isophane insulin Source National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=118984375,  https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/118984375 (accessed Nov. 18, 2018). Hope …

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TETRACYCLINES MNEMONICS

Tetracyclines act by blocking protein synthesis inside the microbe. Remember the antibiotics which act by protein synthesis inhibition using the mnemonic AT-30 CEL-50. Protein synthesis inhibitors: remember AT-30 CELL-50AminoglycosidesTetracyclinesChloramphenicolErythromycin (macrolides)Linezolid Remember the clinical uses of tetracyclines using the mnemonic BBC MARVEL. Tetracyclines uses include: Remeber BBC MARVELBorrelia BurgdorferiChlamydiaMycoplasma pneumoniaeAcneRickettsiaVibrio choleraeLyme disease (Borrelia Burgdorferi) We have one …

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BACTERICIDAL and BACTERIOSTATIC ANTIBIOTICS MNEMONICS

Bacteriostatic antibiotics prevent the growth of bacteria (i.e., it keeps them in the stationary phase of growth), while bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. The classification of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics is frequently asked in USMLE, PLAB, NEXT and other medical exams. Remember the bactericidal antibiotics with the mnemonic BANG Q RIP. Bactericidal antibiotics: remember “BANG Q …

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Divisions and Subdivisions of The Diencephalon

The following table summarises the Divisions and subdivisions of the diencephalon. Divisions Subdivisions Pars dorsalis • Thalamus (dorsal thalamus) • Metathalamus Medial and lateralgeniculate bodies • Epithalamus Pineal gland, habenularnuclei and commissure,and posterior commissure Pars ventralis • Subthalamus (ventralthalamus) Subthalamic nucleusand zona inserta • Hypothalamus Hope you found that article useful. We are glad you …

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Parts of Brain And Their Cavities/Ventricles

There are four ventricles or cavities in the human central nervous system. The table below summarizes the part of the brain and what the respective ventricle is called. Do memorize this table by heart. Part of Brain Cavity Cerebrum (right and leftcerebral hemispheres) Right and left lateralventricles Diencephalon (thalamusand hypothalamus) Third ventricle Midbrain Cerebral aqueduct …

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Difference Between Male and Female Pelvis

The anatomical differences between male and female pelvis are frequently asked in medical school exams as well as in USMLE, PLAB and NEXT. The following table summarises the Differences between the male and female pelvis. Male Female General structure Heavy and thick Light and thin Articular surfaces Large Small Muscle attachments Well marked Indistinct False …

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Mnemonics to remember NSAIDS

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin and diclofanac are the most commonly prescribed drugs for arthritis, inflammation, and cardiovascular protection. However, they cause gastrointestinal complications such as ulcers and erosions. The pathophysiology of these complications has mostly been ascribed to NSAID’s action on the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and the subsequent prostaglandin (PG) deficiency. NSAIDs …

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Mnemonics to remember Classification of Benzodiazepines

We have several super useful mnemonics to help you remember Benzodiazepines and their classification. Short acting Benzodiazepines have half-life values less than  5 hours. Remember the mnemonic ATOM for short acting Benzodiazepines. AlprazolamTriazolamOxazepamMidazolam Intermediate acting Benzodiazepines have half-life values from 5-24 hours. Remember the mnemonic TLC for intermediate acting benzodiazepines. (Note TLC = Thin Layer Chromatography) …

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