Mnemonic for Causes and Management of EPISTAXIS

Remember the causes of Epistaxis using the mnemonic NSAID .


  • Nasal disorders e.g. trauma, tumor, rhinitis, sinusitis, lupus, etc.
  • Spontaneous, Scurvy
  • Air sickness, Arterial hypertension, Altitude high
  • Idiopathic, Infective fever
  • Diphtheria, Danlos syndrome, Drugs: salicylates, quinine, etc.

Remember the management of Epistaxis using the mnemonic EPISTAXIS .


  • Examine
  • Attempt to distinguish between anterior and posterior bleeding
  • Pressure
  • Apply pressure over the nose with compression device or fingers
  • Irrigate
  • Irrigate with warm water
  • Silver nitrate
  • Apply silver nitrate locally, if anterior vessel identified
  • Tampons
  • Insert anterior nasal or posterior balloon tampons
  • Afrin
  • Oxymetazoline can be sprayed in the nose as part of conservative treatment or applied on tampon
  • TXA
  • Apply TXA as gel or solution on tampon
  • Interventional radiology
  • Contact interventional radiology for embolization in conjunction with ENT surgeon
  • Surgical consultation
  • Obtain an early ENT consult for severe or high risk bleeding

Hope that mnemonic helped. Got a better mnemonic for the same? Let us know in the comments below.
Also check out these medical mnemonics

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